EV Glossary - learn about the most important systems

The increasing popularity of electric cars results in the necessity to introduce specialised software into the industry. Thus, new innovative systems are being developed to improve efficiency and safety. Growing demand for well-functioning vehicle software requires the presence of well-trained programmers in this field in the EV industry.

If you operate in the EV industry, you know that both hardware and software are essential parts of the overall system. We have prepared a glossary of terms to help you understand how various IT systems in the EV industry work.

Charging infrastructure management

While the EV industry is growing, the electricity demand is increasing. There are more and more charging stations. Electric vehicles and chargers should be compatible with each other. This is why the software for these devices is based on international standards.

OCPP, OCPI, OICP – communication protocols

Compatibility means that devices 'speak the same language'. In the EV industry, developers use open-source protocols to achieve this: OCPP, OCPI and OICP.

OCPP, Open Charge Point Protocol – defines a method of communication between electric vehicles, charging stations and the network managing these stations. It enables suppliers, intermediaries and energy consumers to adhere to a single standard, regardless of the devices they use.

OCPI, Open Charge Point Interface – a protocol that connects charging stations, charging point operators (CPOs) and charging infrastructure service providers.

OICP, Open InterCharge Protocol – a mode of communication used by automotive and energy companies for billing purposes. It allows for real-time exchange of information about initiated charging, payment authorisation or transmission of invoices for energy services.

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G2V and V2G

These mysterious abbreviations represent how energy is used from an electric car's battery.

G2V, or Grid-to-Vehicle, is a model in which the network charges the vehicle. This model allows automatic distribution of battery charging procedure over time and energy consumption management, ensuring avoidance of sudden load increases. While the battery is replenished, the vehicle can be driven until its reconnection to the power source.

However, the increasing number of electric cars means the electric grid requires better energy management. That is why the V2G model, i.e., vehicle-to-grid, allows for bidirectional current flow. Its working principle boils down to releasing electricity into the grid by the vehicle's battery at certain times, providing balance for higher loads.

Dynamic Pricing

This prompts electric car owners to opt for an alternative charging point. The algorithm serves the dual purpose of maximising revenue for the charging operator during peak demand and safeguarding the electricity grid from potential overload.

Load Balancing Algorithms

This term, already known in the IT environment, relates to managing server resources responsible for ensuring browsing the website faster and more conveniently at a given moment. The situation is similar in the case of electric vehicle charging stations. Algorithms of this type are responsible for optimal energy distribution. Thus, they make charging processes more efficient and adapted to other users or network devices. This can be used in both public and domestic charging stations.

EV Glossary

Battery safety and performance

The software responsible for running the charging network is one side of the coin. However, IT systems are also needed for electric cars. They manage, for example, energy consumption, safety, efficiency or indicate driving parameters.

Regenerative Braking Optimisation

The regenerative braking process involves recovering some energy when the vehicle slows down. When this happens, an electric car's engine is used as a generator, and the lost speed is converted into energy that "returns" to the battery. In this way, the vehicle consumes less energy overall, allowing it to travel more kilometres per charge.

BTMS – Battery Thermal Management System

Electric cars are equipped with converters that are responsible for transforming the alternating current in sockets into direct current. As a result of this process, heat is generated during the battery's charging, just like with smartphones. Therefore, BTM systems protect the battery against overheating, ensuring its longevity.


Many modern devices and cars are equipped with a geofencing function using, for example, GPS technology. It boils down to the principle of performing a specific action by the operating system, e.g., sending a notification to the phone when a particular zone is left. Thanks to this, electric vehicles can inform their owners, for example, about being too far away from the charging station. In the case of hybrid cars, the system can automatically turn on the electric drive when entering the emission-free city centre.

Software for the electromobility industry

The EV industry is a dynamically developing sector in which efficient software plays a key role. There is no doubt that subsequent innovations will be even more related to IT engineering. Therefore, it is worth mastering the fundamental issues now. If you have a project related to electromobility, our developers will certainly help you in its implementation. We have experience in creating EV industry software. Feel free to contact our Happy Team.

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